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Der majestätische Diskusfisch

Der Diskusfisch ist einer der intelligenteten und kommunikatisten Fische in der Aquaristik. Er gilt zu unrecht als kompliziert. Wenn der Halter sich ein wenig auf die Bedürfnisse des Fisches einläßt, ist der Diskus ein einfach zu haltender und geselliger Zeitgenosse. Mit diesem Blog möchte ich den Interessenten einige Informationen über die Herkunft und die daraus abgeleiteten Ansprüceh des Fisches geben.

Der Majestätische Diskus – H

erkunft – Haltung

AquaristikGeschrieben von Friedrich Bier So, Februar 08, 2015 00:44:18
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Der Diskusfisch hat seinen Namen aufgrund seiner rundlichen Form. Er wird bis zu 20 cm lang und kann über 15 cm hoch werden. Der Besonderheit seiner Form ist mit der Höhe des Beckens von mindestens 50 cm Rechnung zu tragen.

Als Hybride ist der Diskus mitlerweile in den verschiedensten Farbkombinationen erhältlich. Die asiatischen Zuchten lassen für den Liebhaber kaum Wünsche offen. Wild ist der Diskus in Südamerika zu finden. Lediglich der Alenquer kommt in Europa vor.

Der Alenquer fällt mit seinen Bedürfnissen gänzlich aus der Reihe. Sein Bedarf ist nicht vergleichbar mit dem seiner südamerikanischen Artgenossen. So mag er eher hartes, mineralstofreiches Wasser. Auch die Temperaturen liegen unterhalb der südamerikanischen Spezies und muß daher gesondert behandelt werden.


Becken
Mindesthöhe 50 cm und mindstens 300 l für ein reines Diskusbecken. Diskusse sind Schwarmfische und sollten deshalb nicht allein gehalten werden. Ein reines Diskusbecken sollte über eine Gesellschaft von mindestens 8 Diskusfischen verfügen.

Innerhalb eines Gesellschaftsaquariums kann ein Diskuspaar gehalten werden. Auch wenn der Dikus von seiner Veranlagung ein sehr friedlicher Fisch ist, ist zu beachten, daß kleine Fische wie ein Neon unter Diskussen zum Lebendfutter mutieren kann. Fische, die mit Diskussen gehalten werden sollten daher robust und groß genug sein, um sich im Zusammenleben mit diesen majestätischen Fischen durchsetzen zu können.


Boden
Der Diskus ist ein Fisch, der in Ufernähe beheimatet ist. Liebhaber dieser Fische legen in Ihrem Aquarium ein uferähnliche Szenario an. Ein Boden aus Kies, nach vorne hin auslaufend, auf sandiger Basis. Wurzelholz ziert das Becken und gehört zum natürlichen Ambiente des Diskusfisches. Zwischen den Hölzern wachsen verschiedene Pflanzen, die nach vorne hin immer kleinwüchsiger ausfallen. Da der Diskusfisch Allesfresser ist kann er Wasserpflanzen wirklich ganz auffressen. Die Pflanzen sollten daher so ausgewählt sein, daß sie entweder sehr robust sind, oder problemlos ersetzt werden können. Da der Diskus mit seinen Fäkalien den Boden belastet, sollte das Becken so eingerichtet sein, daß der Boden problemlos gemulcht werden kann.

Da Diskusse gerne auf harten Blättern laichen sind die Pflanzen

Echinodorus beleheri

Echinodorus Amazonicus

für Diskusbecken besonders geeignet. Sie bieten dem Diskus auch genügend Widerstand, so daß diese Pflanze echte Überlebenschancen hat.

Wasser Die Diskusfische lieben mineralstoffarmes und weiches Wasser. Der PH-Wert kann in einem Diskusbecken durchaus unter 6 und der Gesamthärtegrad bei 7 oder 8 liegen. Bei diesen Verhältnissen fühlt sich der Diskus wie zu Hause. Wem das zu kompliziert ist kann den Diskus auch in Leitungswasser halten. Das Leitungswasser sollte aber nicht zu hart ausfallen ( max einen PH-Wert von 7 bis 7,5 ) und auf jeden Fall mit Wasseraufbereiter behandelt sein, damit die für den Fisch giftigen metallischen Verbindungen gebunden werden. Allerdings sollte der Fisch beim Kauf, sofern Ihr Tierhändler den Fisch nicht selbst auf Leitungswasser hält, langsam an die Wasserqualität gewöhnt werden, da er auf ansteigende PH–Werte empfindlich reagiert und sterben kann. Auch ist bei hartem Wasser auf die Ammonium Konzentration zu achten.

Der Diskus lebt in der Amazonas und Rio Negro Region. In der Region in der der Rio Negro in den Amazonas mündet fließt der Rio Negro mit seinem schwarzen Wasser kilometerweit neben dem weißen Amazonas her, bis sich beide Flüße in ein lehmbraunes Wasser vermischt haben.

Die Wasserwerte der beiden Flüsse sind wie folgt:

Wasserwert Schwarzwasser Weißwasser Einheit
PH-Wert 4,42 6,30
Elektr Leitfähigkeit 15 23 µS/cm
Carbonathärte 0,1 0,7

°dH
Gesamthärte 0,003 0,4 °dH

Da die Jahreszeiten in Südamerika denen in Europa diagonal gegenüberliegen ist das Wasser im Sommer niedriger zu temperieren als im Winter. Der Europäer kann die Wassertemperaturen im Sommer zwischen 26°C und 27°C belassen, während die Fische es im Winter bei 29°C bis 31°C lieben, sich bei Ihnen aufzuhalten.

Zur Veranschaulichung zeigt Ihnen die folgende Tabelle den Temperaturverlauf und die Regentage in Brasilien im Monatsdurchschnitt:

Monat 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12
Min. Temp. °C 23 23 22 21 19 18 17 18 18 19 20 22
Max. Temp. °C 29 29 28 27 25 24 24 24 24 25 26 28
Feuchtigkeit % 76 78 81 80 79 78 77 75 78 78 77 77
Regentage 13 11 14 10 20 7 7 7 11 13 13 14

Die meisten Aquarianer von Gesellschaftsaquarien werden jetzt vermutlich sagen, daß bei diesen Bedingungen Ihr restlicher Fischbestand nicht lebensfähig erscheint. Der Diskus verträgt auch die Bedingungen eines gewöhnlichen Gesellschaftsaquarium und kann darin sein stattliches Alter von 15 Jahren erreichen. Ich habe hier nur die Bedingungen seiner natürlichen Umgebung beschrieben.

WassergifteEin großer Teil des Fischfutters besteht aus Stickstoffverbindungen, die als Futterreste, Urin und Kot das Wasser belasten. Dazu kommt Ammonium, das aus dem Ammoniak entsteht, das die Fische ausatmen. Ammonium das der Pflanzendüngung dient ist für die Fische relativ ungefährlich. Steigt der PH-Wert im Wasser in den alkalischen Bereich zerfällt Ammonium sehr schnell zu freien Ammoniak und Wasser. Das Auftreten von freiem Ammoniak im Aquarium muss unbedingt vermieden werden, da es sich bei einer Konzentration über 0,1 mg/l für die Aquarienbewohner tödlich sein kann. Der PH-Wert muss also im sauren Bereich bleiben.

Ist der Filter gut eingefahren wird Ammonium durch Bakterien zu Nitrit umgewandelt, das zwar ungefährlicher ist als Ammonium, dennoch unter 1mg/l liegen muss. Dieses wird von Bakterien zu Nitrat abgebaut.

Sauerstoff ist also unbedingt notwendig zum

Abbau der Verunreinigungen und Gifte, da der Abbau einen Oxidationsprozess darstellt.

Bei steigenden Nitratwerten sinkt das allgem Wohlbefinden der Fische. Der Nirtratwert darf 100mg/l nicht übersteigen.

Nitrit ist ein Nervengift, das im Aquarium unbedingt vermieden werden sollte. Der Nitritwert sollte nach Möglichkeit gegen 0 mg/l tendieren und 0,1 mg/l nicht übersteigen. Nitrit macht die Fische apathisch und appetitlos. Falls Ihre Fische die Nahrung verweigern kann dies am überhöhten Nitritwert liegen. Der Nitritwert ist in diesem Falle vorsorglich zu überprüfen. Sollte das Nitrit einen signifikanten Wert erreichen ist ein sofortiger Wasserwecksel von 2/3 des Beckeninhaltes erforderlich.

Der wöchentliche Wasserwechsel von 2/3 des Beckeninhalts sollte in gewöhnlich besetzten Aquarien ohnehin selbstverständlich sein. Lediglich sehr schwach besetzte Aquarien erlauben längere Intervalle.

Soll der Diskus in naturgetreuem Wasser leben ist eine Osmoseanlage unbedingt erforderlich. Auch sollte über Ausströmer für ausreichende Sauerstoffzufuhr gesorgt werden. Da Dikusse sehr weiches Wasser lieben solte auf eine CO2 Anlage besser verzichtet werden, auch wenn die CO2 Düngung den Pflanzen gut tut. Diskusse reagieren auf CO2 Düngung mit Nahrungsverweigerung.

FutterLebendfutter:

Artemia, weiße Mückenlarven, rote Mückenlarven, Tubifex

Rindfleischmix:

300 gr Rinderherz

1 Zehe Knoblauch

und wahlweise einige Blätter Salat, eine Mohrrübe, einen Apfel, eine Birne ec.

Alles das wird durch den Fleischwolf gedreht oder/und mit dem Pürierstab zu einer sehr feinen Paste verarbeitet. Welche Konsistenz Sie ihren Fischen füttern, hängt von der Größe und dem Gusto ihrer Fische ab. Am besten probieren Sie es einfach aus. Ich habe meinen Tieren Löwenzahn von der Wiese mit in das Futter gemischt. Die Tiere haben dieses sehr gerne gefressen. Es ist ihnen wohl bekommen.

Fisch-Garnelenmix

1 Seelachsfilet oder äquivalent ein anderes Fischfilet

150 gr Garnelen

1 Zehe Knoblauch

und wahlweise einige Blätter Salat, eine Mohrrübe, einen Apfel, eine Birne ec.

Alles das wird durch den Fleischwolf gedreht oder/und mit dem Pürierstab zu einer sehr feinen Paste verarbeitet. Welche Konsistenz Sie ihren Fischen füttern, hängt von der Größe und dem Gusto ihrer Fische ab. Am besten probieren Sie es einfach aus.

Machen Sie einmal den Spaß und werfen Sie einen Garnelenschwanz oder ein Stück Fisch in das Becken. Die Fische zeigen Ihnen Ihr Schwarmverhalten. Beim Kampf um den leckersten Bissen erkennen Sie die Position Ihrer Fische im Schwarm. Es ist ein Event den Tieren beim Zerlegen des Futtertieres zuzusehen.

Frostfutter:

Weiße und rote Mückenlarven, Artemia

Granulat

Es werden von verschiedenen Herstellern Granulate angeboten, an die der Diskus gewöhnt werden kann. Ich empfehle auszuprobieren, welches Trockenfutter Ihr Diskus bevorzugt und dieses zu verfüttern.

Ich habe die Erfahrung gemacht, daß meine Diskusse neben Artemia und weißen Mückenlarven als Lebendfutter den Rindfleischmix am liebsten fressen. Rinderherz gilt auch als sehr nahrhaft, sodaß die Fische mit diesem Futter sehr schnell zu ihrer stattlichen Größe von ca. 20 cm Länge heranwachsen. Sehr gerne fressen sie auch als Frostfutter angebotene Mückenlarven und ausgewachsene Artemia. Von gefrorenen kleinen Insekten wie Wasserflöhen sollte man absehen, da dieses Futter für die großen Diskusfische zu klein ist. Solches Futter kann bei Jungfischen verwendet werden.

Gesellschaftsfische und andere TiereAuch wenn der Diskus von seiner Veranlagung ein sehr friedlicher Fisch ist ist zu beachten, daß er ein Raubfisch ist und kleine Fische wie ein Neon unter Diskussen zum Lebendfutter mutieren kann. Fische, die mit Diskussen gehalten werden sollten daher robust und groß genug sein, um sich im Zusammenleben mit diesen majestätischen Fischen durchsetzen zu können. Dies gilt auch für Garnelen. Ich habe mit Junggarnelen die Erfahrung gemacht, daß sie der Diskus sehr schnell als Futter betrachtet. Sie wurden bei mir keine Woche alt. Auch Schnecken gelten Diskusse als Delikatesse. Als ich mein verschnecktes Becken mit meinem Erstbesatz Diskusse besetzte, machte ich mir wegen des einmonatigen Appetitmangels der Tiere große Sorgen, bis mir auffiel, daß der Schneckenbesatz sichtbar abnahm. Dasselbe gilt für wertvolle L-Wels-Jungtiere. Fische sollten mindestens 5 cm lang sein, damit sie die Gesellschaft der Diskusse angstfrei geniessen können.

SymbiosenMuscheln sind Wasserfiltrierer und haben den Kot der Diskusse zum fressen gern. Der Bodengrund sollte daher nicht zu sauber sein, da die Muschel sonst verhungert.

Kleine Buntbarsche und Welse fressen das, was der Diskus beim Fressen im Wasser zerstäubt und das was zum Boden fällt.

Neonfische fressen Schwebeteile bzw Futterreste im Wasser und dienen auch als Lebendfutter.

Eine Prachtschmerle sieht nichŧ nur gut aus, sie zeigt auch hörbar an, wenn etwas mit dem Wasser nicht stimmt. Schwimmt sie oft an die Wasseroberfläche und schnappt schmatzend nach Luft ist dringend eine Kontrolle des Wasser und ggfs. ein Wasserwechsel geboten und der Grund zu suchen, warum das Wasser nicht mehr in Ordnung ist.

All dies gilt für südamerikanische Diskusse. Der europäische Alenquer lebt in neutralem bis alkalischem Wasser und benötigt niedrigere Wassertemperaturen.

Are Facebook, Amazo, Apple, Netflix and Alphabet really dangerous influencers?

Analysts denominate the successful tech-giants Facebook, amazon, Apple, Netflix and Google as FAANG. The value of this 5 Corporations is mor ethan 3 bio $. With that capital this corporates are able to bias tax policies, international agreements and other politics the way they like. Politics become sensible of that problem and want to split this giants into different companies.

 

Corporation

Value 2019

Equity Capital 2018

Facebook

415,9bio€

84,127bioUSD

Amazon

853,8bio€

27,709bioUSD

Apple

847,2bio€

107.147bioUSD

Neflix

146,3bio€

2.239bioUSD

Alphabet

650,1bio€ (Alphabet A)

177.628bioUSD

Finanzen.net

Macrotest data showed also a high increasing cash on hand.

Facebook cash on hand for 2016 was $29.449bio, a 59.75% increase from 2015

Facebook cash on hand for 2017 was $41.711bio, a 41.64% increase from 2016

Facebook cash on hand for 2018 was $41.114bio, a 1.43% decline from 2017

Facebook cash on hand for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 was $45.243bio, a 2.93% increase year-over-year

 

Amazon cash on hand for 2016 was $25.981bio, a 31.16% increase from 2015

Amazon cash on hand for 2017 was $30.986bio, a 19.26% increase from 2016

Amazon cash on hand for 2018 was $41.25bio, a 33.12% increase from 2017

Amazon cash on hand for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 was $37.020bio, a 48.3% increase year-over-year.

 

Apple cash on hand for 2016 was $67.155bio, a 61.43% increase from 2015

Apple cash on hand for 2017 was $74.181bio, a 10.46% increase from 2016

Apple cash on hand for 2018 was $66.301bio, a 10.62% decline from 2017

Apple cash on hand for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 was $80.092bio, a 8.92% decline year-over-year

 

Netflix cash on hand for 2016 was $1.734bio, a 24.97% decline from 2015

Netflix cash on hand for 2017 was $2.823bio, a 62.81% increase from 2016

Netflix cash on hand for 2018 was $3.794bio, a 34.42% increase from 2017

Netflix cash on hand for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 was $3.349bio, a 29.11% increase year-over-year

 

Alphabet cash on hand for 2016 was $86.333bio, a 18.16% increase from 2015

Alphabet cash on hand for 2017 was $101.871bio, a 18% increase from 2016

Alphabet cash on hand for 2018 was $109.14bio, a 7.14% increase from 2017

Alphabet cash on hand for the quarter ending March 31, 2019 was $113.488bio, a 10.31% increase year-over-year

With a cash on hand of 113.488bio$ Alphabet could buy an African country or a corporation if its like and accumulated this 5 corporations have a cash, dated at the end of the first quarter, of 2019 of 279.19bio$. By comparison the budget of Germany in 2019 is 356.4 bio € and it‘s BIP in 2018 was 3,996.76bioUSD. The BIP of Togo in Africa in 2018 was 5bio$. The BIP of the USA in 2018 was 20,494.1bio$ the federal budget of 2019 is 4.407 trillion$.

A quarter of the federal budget of the USA owns the 25 richest families in the world, namely 1100bio$. That estimates capital.de in a report at June, 24th of 2019. The richest family Walton has a fortune of estimated 151.5bio$. The family regained the Walmart Imperium and and owns more than 50% of its assetts. The wealth  of the family overtakes the worth of Netflix.

The brothers David and Charles Koch are the owner of Koch Industries and are valued with 98.7bio$. They support active the political right wing sector with high valued donors.

The Mars family controls the schocolate imperium Mars which produces candy bars and food for animals. Their fortune is estimated 89.7mrd$.

Any of that families is able to bias states and work as a political influencer. The families have tradition and are well connected. The tech giants and their owners will live in their tradition.

The table below shows the donors of David and Charles Koch in 2012.

Source: Wikipedia.org;  Robert Maguire – http://www.opensecrets.org/news/assets_c/2014/01/flow%20final-11708.html[toter Link], CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=30598829

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Iran Sanctions Could Lead to Inflation Jump

Iran could see inflation jump to the highest level since 1980, according to the International Monetary Fund. The Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions. Target is also the financial sector. The US president Donald Trump, on 09th of May 2019, announces also to sanction the mining sector.

China and India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports  climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle East.

China’s crude imports  climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

the Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions coupled with a weakening currency

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MoU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

iddle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Ir

China an d India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

anian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insur

the Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions coupled with a weakening currency

ance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the l

China an d India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

atest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. Iran announce to start enrichment of uran and rocket tests again. This would make Iran able to build an atomic bomb. It also warns that it would attack Israel immeditaly if Israel take action against an ally of Iran or Iran itself. This could flare up civil war in Yemen. Houthis could also attack Saudi Arabia with rockets. Saudi Arabia is an ally of the USA.

The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by itself. It can win an ally.

 

Kim Jong Un and Putin negotiating UN sanctions

North Korea‘s president Kim Jong Un and Russian president Vladimir Putin meet in Wladivostok to diskuss the relations between the two communistic countries. For North Korea it is very urgent and important to find agreements in foreign trade solutions. The situation is very difficult because the UN sanctions will change the situation by the end of 2019.

The UN sanctions to North Korea forbid wide range trading in agriculture, industrial products and also in the sector of service, maintaining in both directions. The sanctions also include the financial sector where the fincial institutes have to leave North Korea and any cooperation is forbidden. North Korea is forbidden to export seafood and to sell fishing rights. Also the transport companies of North Korea are facing sharp restrictions. UN sanctions allow only the import of food in the range that human rights are given.

North Korea has a big problem to nourish it‘s people. It was short in 2018 and will be more in 2019 if it can‘t find relief.

At least the border to North Korea is closed and international financial transactions are nearly impossible.

North Korea must also looking to develop economic ties with Russia to lessen its dependency on China. In an interview with China’s official People’s Daily Putin said: „China can’t help as it is in the middle of a trade war with the US and Kim can’t visit Beijing because he might lose face if he makes his fifth China trip.“

On 22 December of 2019 UN sanktion forbid North Koreans to work in foreign countries. There are 10,000 North Koeans working in the agricultural sector of Russia. They are doing work no Russian wants to do. They have to leave if Russia will not infringe UN sanctions. North Korea will loose mio of $ of income it‘s people earn. The situation on the food sector will get more dramatic.

The negotiation between US President Trump and North Korea‘s stopped, because USA wanted from North Korea to say uncle to it‘s atomic and rocket programm. North Korea said it would do that, if the USA will stop the sanctions against it. North Korea blow up it‘s base where it tests atomic bombs. In exchange it demands from the USA to loosen up the sanctions. But the USA denied it.

The unseccessfully negotiations between USA and North Korea will drive North Korea into the influence of Russia and China. Even if China can‘t help now are both countries friends of North Korea over decades. Also the wall between North Korea and South Korea is getting porous.

If North Korea is able to negotiate with South Korea bilateral cooperation the state of the USA in the region will get weak.

You will find the UN sanctions at:

https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/sanctions/1718

Sri Lanka Attacks Retaliation for Christ Church Attack

A series of eight devastating bomb blasts ripped through several luxury hotels and three churches holding Easter services in the Sri lanka cities of Colombo, Negombe and Batticaloa on Sunday, killing 321 people and wounding over 500.

The blasts hit the churches when they were full of worshippers who gathered for Easter services. Nearly all victims were Sri Lankans. Officials said the dead also included dozens of foreigners.

There were 50 killed at a shooting by an australian right wing terrorist on March of 15th 2019. A carbomb was found and controlled detonated. The security forces also found over 80 fuses.

There was no claim of responsibility, but Defence Minister Ruwan Wijewardene described the blasts as a „terrorist attack“ by religious groups.

„The preliminary investigations have revealed that what happened in Sri Lanka (on Sunday) was in retaliation for the attack against Muslims in Christchurch,“ Ruwan Wijewardene told parliament.

Two local Muslim organisation, National Thawheeth Jama’ath (NTJ) and Jammiyathul Millathu Ibrahim (JMI), has been linked to  the attacks on the Indian Ocean island which is also a highly recommended touristic target.

After the attack the government of Sri Lanka imposes a curfew and emergency law including pollarding the internet social networks like facebook, Snapchat, Viber and WhatsApp. At the last emergency law military have wide-ranged powers including the possibility to raid habits without court order and detain suspects months without charge. The government fess up, that they had indication that there was an attack planned but it wasn’t relevant enough to move.

https://www.tagesschau.de/multimedia/sendung/ts-30987.html

https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2019/04/sri-lanka-attacks-retaliation-christchurch-deputy-minister-190423082847025.html

 

 

Griechenland und Polen diskutieren Reparationsforderungen gegen Deutschland

Griechenland verlangt Reparationszahlungen für 330.000 im 2. Weltkrieg getötete Griechen. Da staunte die Bundesregierung. Sie ist aber selbst schuld. Friedensverträge hätten schon längst ausgehandelt werden müssen. Das Kriegsende war 1945. Jetzt schreiben 2018. Das sind geschlagene 73 Jahre. Wir waren in der Lage alle möglichen Bündnisse zu vereinbaren und Verträge abzuschließen. Die Montanunion, EWG, EU, NATO, Rettungsschirme, Freihandels- und Emmissionsabkommen mit allen möglichen Staaten auf der Erde und Vereinbarungen über Entwicklungshilfe auf mindestens 3 Kontinenten.

Nur wenn es um die Friedensverträge für Deutschland ging wurden sofort alle Verhandlungen verschoben, vertagt, mittlerweile abgelehnt, weil die Wirtschaft und Politik derart verflochten sei, daß ein Kriegszustand nicht mehr gegeben sei und von Frieden ausgegangen werden könne.

Juristisch jedoch leben wir nach wie vor im Kriegszustand, vereinbart wurde nur ein Waffenstillstand, die territorrialen Ansprüche der BRD sind anerkannt. Ein Kriegszustand ist damit nach wie vor gegeben und aktiver Krieg könnte ohne weiteres durch einfachen Bruch des vereinbarten Waffenstillstands hervorgerufen werden.

Insofern hat auch das deutsche Volk ein Recht auf vereinbarten Frieden, einen aktiv bestehenden Friedensvertrag.

Meine Erfahrungen zeigen, dass derjenige, der aktiv ein Ziel anstrebt, die besten Erfolge erzielt. Auf die Friedensvereinbarungen angewendet bedeutet dies, dass die Regierungen der BRD fast ein dreiviertel Jahrhundert Zeit gehabt haben sich mit den Kriegsparteien an einen Tisch zu setzen, Friedensvereinbarungen aktiv zu anzustreben, die Siegermächte zu Verhandlungen aufzufordern, einen Friedensvertrag in den Parlamenten zu ratifizieren und damit die Reparationszahlungen selbst zu steuern. Damit wäre das Thema nachhaltig vom Tisch gewesen.

Es gab sogar eine Initiative, die sogenannten „Reichsbürger“, die nichts anderes wollten, als einen solchen Friedensvertrag und damit die juristische Anerkennung der BRD. Diese Bewegung wurde marginalisiert und anschließend kriminalisiert. Unter Obama hätte ein Friedensvertrag gute Chancen gehabt für alle Parteien, die BRD und die Siegermächte, positiv gestaltet zu werden. Aber die Regierung der BRD gab vor die Frage gestellt zur Antwort, daß ein Friedensvertrag nicht erforderlich sei.

In West-Deutschland regelte das Besatzungsstatut von 1949:

„Die Regierungen Frankreichs, der Vereinigten Staaten und des Vereinigten Königreichs wünschen und beabsichtigen, daß das deutsche Volk während des Zeitraums, in dem die Aufrechterhaltung der Besetzung als Notwendigkeit erachtet wird, das größtmögliche Maß an Selbstregierung besitzt, das mit der Besetzung vereinbar ist. Der Bundesstaat und die in ihm zusammengeschlossenen Länder sollen volle gesetzgebende, vollziehende und rechtsprechende Gewalt nach den Bestimmungen des Grundgesetzes und der Landesverfassungen besitzen und sind in der Ausübung dieser Gewalt nur den in diesem Statut vorgesehenen Beschränkungen unterworfen.“

https://www.konrad-adenauer.de/dokumente/vertraege/1949-04-08-besatzungsstatut

Bis 1990 war die Bundesrepublik Deutschland faktisch nicht vollständig souverän. Mit dem 2+4-Vertrag zur Deutschen Einheit (12.9.1990) erkannten die ehemaligen Alliierten des Zweiten Weltkriegs (Frankreich, Großbritannien, UdSSR und USA) die Bundesrepublik Deutschland völkerrechtlich an.

Der Vertrag über die abschließende Regelung in Bezug auf Deutschland legt fest:

  1. Die endgültigen mitteleuropäischen Grenzen und damit das Staatsgebiet des vereinten Deutschlands mit der Erklärung, dass Deutschland keine Gebietsansprüche an andere Staaten stellt.
  2. Die Begrenzung der Personalstärke der deutschen Streitkräfte auf 370.000 Personen mit der Erklärung, dass Deutschland auf die Herstellung, die Verfügung über und den Besitz von ABC-Waffen sowie auf das Führen von Angriffskriegen verzichtet.
  3. Eine Vereinbarung über den Abzug der sowjetischen Truppen aus Ostdeutschland bis 1994 und das Recht, Bündnissen anzugehören.

Damit wurde lediglich das neue Staatsgebiet der BRD anerkannt, der Möglichkeit der wirklichen Souveränität durch eine schlagkräfte Armee eine Absage erteilt. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland hat sich lediglich gegenüber den Siegermächten abgesichert, dass diese das neue Staatsgebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland anerkennen. Dafür bestand absolute Notwendigkeit. Damit wurde höchste Kriegsgefahr abgewendet. Schließlich hätten die Russen die Wiedervereinigung als Vertragsverstoß gegen die vertraglich festgelegte alte Gebietsaufteilung Deutschlands werten und die DDR wieder zurückfordern können, auch auf militärische Art und Weise. Das Staatsgebiet der DDR stand damals vertragsrechtlich noch unter der Aufsicht von Russland.

Ein wirklich selbständiges Deutschland ist nach wie vor nicht gestattet. Und was machen die Deutschen, wenn die USA aus der NATO austritt?

Es war auch nicht die erste Erweiterung der BRD. Die Erste war im Jahr 1957, als das Saarland vertragsrechltich der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zugesprochen wurde.

Zum Staatsgebiet der Bundesrepublik Deutschland gehört auch das Küstenmeer. Die zweite war das 1982 in Kraft getretene Seerechtsübereinkommen der Vereinten Nationen. Es erlaubt jedem Vertragsstaat, die Breite seines Küstenmeeres bis zu einer Grenze von zwölf Seemeilen festzulegen.

Von dieser Möglichkeit hat die Bundesrepublik Deutschland mit der Proklamation der Bundesregierung über die Ausweitung des deutschen Küstenmeeres vom 19. Oktober 1994 (bekanntgemacht im 1994 I, 3428 ) für die Nordsee vollständig und für die Ostsee teilweise Gebrauch gemacht.

Die Grenzen zu seinen Nachbarstaaten hat die BRD durch einzelne Grenzverträge mit den Staaten geregelt.

https://www.bmi.bund.de/DE/themen/verfassung/staatliche-ordnung/staatsgebiet/staatsgebiet-node.html

Wenn Griechenland die Verhandlungen der Reparationszahlungen durchsetzt, könnten die USA im Rahmen der Fairness und Gleichbehandlung der Kriegsparteien nachziehen, zumal die USA als Siegermacht eine ganz andere Rolle spielte als Griechenland. Dann geht die größte Siegermacht auf Deutschland zu und stellt Forderungen, nicht mit einem eher wohl wollenden smarten Politiker, der sich mit der deutschen Regierung gut versteht, sondern mit einem Präsidenten, der auf eine für die USA „faire“ Behandlung achtet. Das UK ist heute nicht mehr Mitglied der EU, sondern mit der Festlegung des BREXIT bereits aus der EU ausgetreten. Dadurch, dass ein Staat innerhalb der EU, die ja Vereinigung anstrebt, Reparationen verlangt, schafft Griechenland eine Situation, die die bisherige Argumentation der deutschen Regierungen der letzten Jahrzehnte als falsch markiert. Die Staatswesen sind eben nicht durch bilaterale Verträge und der wirtschaftlichen Zusammenarbeit der Staaten selbst so verflochten, dass eine Forderung nach Reparationszahlungen unvorstellbar geworden ist. Auch die Unternehmensverflechtungen schützen offensichtlich nicht. Außerdem hat Griechenland im 2. Weltkrieg eine eher marginale Rolle gespielt. Durch das Verhalten Griechenlands könnten Staaten, die eine weit aus größere Rolle gespielt haben, die weit aus mehr verloren haben, die viel größere Schäden zu beklagen hatten, auf den Pfad geführt werden, ebenfalls mit Deutschland Verhandlungen über Reparationszahlungen zu führen. Zu diesen Staaten gehören bspw die Siegermächte Frankreich, UK und Russland, die  Auslandszahlungen sehr gut verwenden könnten. Die Siegermacht USA, hatten zwar keine Schäden im Heimatland zu verzeichnen, die von den Deutschen verursacht waren. Dennoch hatte die amerikanische Armee große Kosten zu tragen, musste sie doch um die halbe Welt fahren um in Europa aktiv werden zu können. In Europa gab es auch amerikanische Verluste, die in Rechnung gestellt werden können.

Eine Konstellation wie unter Barack Obama und Bill Clinton in Verbindung mit der Hochstimmung nach der Wiedervereinigung, der Perestroika und dem Boom durch die aufkommende Industrialisierung Chinas wird die Regierung der BRD so schnell nicht wieder vorfinden. Mit Staaten lässt sich in lang anhaltenden Boomphasen und einer Stimmung die globale Einheit favorisiert einfacher verhandeln als in Zeiten des wirtschaftlichen Abschwungs und des aufkommenden Nationalismus. Wenn Staaten in Zeiten finanzieller Not zu Reparationszahlungen auffordern, verhandeln sie zielstrebiger als in Zeiten des Überflusses.

Des weiteren überlegt die nationalkonservative Regierungspartei Recht und Gerechtigkeit (PiS) Polens seit 2017 mit Deutschland in Reparationsverhandlungen zu gehen.

Und es verjährt nichts. Wenn die Forderungen vor ein internationales Gericht kommen, dann gibt es auch das Prinzip der Staatenimmunität nicht mehr, das bisher gewirkt hat. Dann wird es für die Bundesrepublik nicht mehr ganz so einfach sein zu sagen, es ist alles erledigt.

Vielleicht erhöht es ja die Entscheidungsfreudigkeit zukünftiger Regierungen, wenn Art 59 i V m Art 65 GG in solchen Fällen Anwendung findet und die Regierung für ihr Verhalten zur Verantwortung gezogen wird.

Wikileaks founder Julian Assange under arrest

Wikileaks founder Julian Assange arrested after the government of Ecuardor had secluded the diplomatic asylum over sexual abuse in Sweden. In October 2018 the government of Ecuardor had regulated the possibilities of communication and the visitors. The reason was the disclosure of photos and videos of privat talks of the ecuardorian president Moreno, information about a purported offshore account controlled by the president’s brother. Personal photographs of Moreno lying in bed, as well as images of close family members dancing, were also leaked, further incensing him.

He harrassed his caretakers accusing them of being U.S. spies looking to exchange information on WikiLeaks in exchange for debt relief for Ecuador. His behavior became more and more erratic. The embassy members mor eand more sour. He was listening to loud music, driving scateboard at night and walking around in his underwear with no concern to others. Finally he smear his cack at the walls of the embassy showing his defiance about his caretakers.

Charity worker Jemima Khan, British-born wife of Pakistani cricketer and politician Imran and Film director Ken Loach offered to stand as surety for Mr Assange. Despite this, Mr Assange was denied bail because of potential flight risk.

India, USA versus China. Conflict or Cooperation?

China and India are emerging countries, are they?

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) defines: “emerging markets are typically countries with low to middle per capita income that have undertaken economic development and reform programs and have begun to ‘emerge’ as significant players in the global economy.”

But the IMF also acknowledges, “there are many ways to categories countries as emerging markets.” So the World Bank and the major financial institutions uses a different categorization.

What‘s left if we categorize with all the different criteria of the different financial instituts like market-oriented reforms, low to middle income, and significant players in the world economy are the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, China, Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Russia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine and Vietnam.

A report from professional services giant PwC looks at which economies around the world will be the biggest and most powerful in the year2050.

10. United Kingdom — $5.369 trillion.

9. Germany — $6.138 trillion.

8. Japan — $6.779 trillion.

7. Mexico — $6.863 trillion.

6. Russia — $7.131 trillion.

5. Brazil — $7.540 trillion.

4. Indonesia — $10.502 trillion.

3. United States — $34.102 trillion.

2. India — $44.128 trillion.

1. China — $58.499 trillion.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

Today the ranking looks like following:

1. United States Nominal GDP: $19.39 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $19.39 trillion

2. China Nominal GDP: $12.01 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $23.15 trillion

3. Japan Nominal GDP: $4.87 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $5.42 trillion

4. Germany Nominal GDP: $3.68 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $4.17 trillion

5. United Kingdom Nominal GDP: $2.62 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $2.91 trillion

6. India Nominal GDP: $2.61 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $9.45 trillion

7. France Nominal GDP: $2.58 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $2.83 trillion

8. Brazil Nominal GDP: $2.05 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $3.24 trillion

9. Italy Nominal GDP: $1.93 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $2.31 trillion

10. Canada Nominal GDP: $1.65 trillion 
GDP (PPP): $1.76 trillion

https://www.investopedia.com/insights/worlds-top-economies/

The industry nations wonder if they had to support the development of China or India. Both countries are competitors on the market in many terms. And both countries are defined to be the world leaders of tomorrow pointing the USA to rank three.

But China of today has deficits in the financial infrastructure. It‘s role in international money transactions is very small. Most transactions are going through the USA followed by UK and BRD.

So China is looking for cooperation to expand and tries to match with the rules of institutions of abroad. But China does not match the ethnical standards of the western counties and it will not do so. China is still regained by the Communist Party which provides other standards than the West. But despite this differences of opinions China is very successfull with it‘s Road and Belt Initiative and it‘s Silk Road Project. With the Silk Road Project China has installed an institution for it‘s expansive foreign policy. It spans a transport system from China to West Europe and Afrika. It includes harbours, streets, railways and airports.

And there are big transnational monetary flows between China and the USA that allows US banks to invest internationally. To break the US hegemony China founded the AIIB ( Asian Infrastructure and Investment Bank ) which connect the asian market with Europe, USA and other countries.

With the AIIB China also tries to generate demand for it‘s domestic market. In 2016 the AIIB was invested in 30 projects with an volumina of 54bio US$, most of them prefinanced with support of japanese or european banks. It has 87 members, Germany is the biggest non-asian contributor and also member of the council of management. USA tries with pressure to avert the accession of many asian states. South Korea shouldn‘t access the AIIB by the threat that the USA wouldn‘t sell them the DSI System. But the USA sold them the DSI-System despite the accession to the AIIB. Japan is not in the AIIB until today.

As China was very successfull the last decades India lost it‘s hegemony and influence in the asian region. In the 1980‘s and 1990‘s US companies and financial institutes invest in India and built IT industry and support centers in the Goa region. Many hotlines in english language the people around the world use are from india, because of India‘s relatively high education by low income.

Different from China, India opens it economy for foreign investments in 1991. In 2000 India begann to support countries in the south, even India was a developing country with low living standard and a high powerty rate. India receives foreign aid from Germany, Russia, Japan, UK and USA. India doesn‘t accept development aid from other countries like these 5 states. But the development aid India contributed to other states 10fold from 1998 until 2018 to 850mio$.

www. India.budget.gov.in

India‘s development aid includes training of professionals and stipendium programms. It built up the Panafrikan E-network satellite and fiber glass network which connects India with 15 african countries and 5 african universities.

India provides also humanitarian aid to it‘s neighbors. A special role has Afghanistan which India supports with hundreds of small projects including water supply, agriculture and health care directly in the villages, so the people can use the advantage directly in their domiciliary. The parlament was built with the help of India and the ring road, which chains afghan cities and connect Afghanistan to Iran. India needs this connection to deliver exportables to Afghanistan without driving through Pakistan. With Pakistan India has a territorial, high tension conflict in Kashmir. Therefore India has a big interest to establish the trade route with Iran. So India‘s budget for Iran is 6% of it‘s development aid to built the harbour of Chabahar. Chabahar will also be the gate to Arabia and Africa. In 2016 India delived it‘s first wheat to Afghanistan. India builts also a dam, the dam fo friendship in Afghanistan.

India also supports the afghan military. First with training of afhan soldiers in India only. Since Modi is India‘s president the restictions are not so strong and India delivers lethal weapons to Afghanistan. It hopes that it can hamper that terrorist backtracks into Afghanistan after attacks in India. Also it can threaten Pakistan from two sides.

India copies successful projects of China. It founded in 2008 the Indian Africa Forum Summit that lean on the Forum on China Africa Cooperation established successfull in 2000 by the Chinese. In 2008 the Indians found not much interest but in 2015 there were 41 head of governments. India and Japan startet the Asian-African-Growth-Corridor which is a countermodell of the Road and Belt Initiative China‘s. It spans health care systems, medicine-, agrarculture-, nutrition projects, education and training and connects the indian harbours in the indian states of Gujarat and Taminado with Dschibuti, Kenya, Tanzania and the Gulf of Bengal. India assign credits to ECOWAS countries. And the West propagates that the social standards are better than the standards of the Road an Belt Initiative.

With this projects India become direct competitor of China. Also China is interested in good infrastructure and harbours in Iran as it delivers goods to Iran and assuage it‘s need for oil.

China has big iron ore mines in Afghanistan and also a big interest in a good infrastructure und political and economic ties.

As US waiver the sanctions against India because of it‘s aid to Chabahar harbour. Afghanistan wants to start its own fleet to drive over Chabahar harbour because the route costs 50% less than the route over the harbour in Karachi.

A waiver to this Iranian port by the US administration may be claimed as a vindication of Iran President Hassan Rouhani’s determination to give the development of this port to India, and not to China.

India must pay attention to its independency and not get involved in the inimical concurrency of the USA and China with it‘s high tension military occurences in the South China Sea. With it‘s neighborhood to China and the border conflict India could become the spearhead of the USA against China.

An economical cooperation between China and India could lead to real wealth and welfare in both countries as both countries together span over 36% of the world‘s population with a high demand in both countries.

Renault wants merging with Nissan and Fiat Chrysler

Renault is searching for new possibilities of merging with Nissan. The deal should be completed in the next 12 month the online-portal finanzen.net reports on 27th of march 2019.

After that merging Renault consider a fusion with Fiat Chrysler the Financial Times publishes in a report on Wednesday.

With a capitalisation valued at 20 bio € Fiat Chrysler will be difficult  stemmed by Renault alone. So Renault wants to deal with an alliance of Nissan and Mitsubishi.

Until now , Renault has a stake of 43,4% of Nissan and Nissan has 15% of Renault. Nissan also has 34% on Mitsubishi. The state of France has a stake in Renault.

Hochtief subdsidiary CIMIC Group signed Botswana Majwe mining joint venture

CIMIC-Group, subsidiary enterprise of Hochtief, communicates that it‘s subsidiary Thiess signed the the mining project Majwe. Thiess has an 70% interest in the 1,7 bio austr. $ joint venture with Bothakga Botswana. The project should last over 9 years. The project includes mining – services. Hochtief has an interest of 72,7% in CIMIC Group.

CIMIC Group is an highly experienced engineering-led construction, mining, services and public private partnerships leader working across the lifecycle of assets, infrastructure and resources projects.

It delivers the full spectrum of services, from feasibility, design, planning and investment; to manufacturing and construction; to operations, maintenance, upgrades and asset management; to rehabilitation and decommissioning.

And the conditions in mining sector are good and the pipeline of CIMIC Goup is full.

Profit of CIMIC Group increases by 11% to 781mio australian $, forecasting an amount between 720 and 780 mio australian $ in the last year. Revenue increased by 9%, the cashflow in operative business increased by 22%. The forecast for 2019 and 2020 is good. Woodside Energy has awarded a contract to CIMIC Group’s UGL as part of the latter’s joint venture with Cape at the Karratha gas plant in Western Australia. The contract will generate additional revenue to UGL of around $190 million and includes two further multi-year extension options. Karratha gas plant is central to Woodside’s proposed development of the Burrup Hub. The plant has a production capacity of 12,000 tonnes of domestic gas per day, with dry gas sourced from Scarborough, Browse and Pluto. The joint venture between CIMIC UGL and Cape will provide brownfields implementation services including planning and execution of work scope for mechanical, electrical and instrumentation, access, fire protection application, blasting and painting, cladding and insulation.The Karratha plant also includes five LNG processing trains, two domestic gas trains, six condensate stabilisation units and three LPG fractionation units. CIMIC UGL has provided services at Karratha since 2015.“

https://www.cimic.com.au/en

https://www.finanzen.net/nachricht/aktien/hochtief-tochter-cimic-ergattert-in-botswana-milliardenschweren-minenauftrag-7265069