Schlagwort-Archiv: India

Income And Equality In Societies

At 1000 AD there were different, separated economic systems and societies on the continents of the world. Scientific data shows, that the average wealth of this different systems was equal, but inside the systems the wealth was highly different. Today, we would say that the average income per capita in all societies globally was between 500 US$ and 600 US$.

Between 1000 and 1820 the population of the world quadrupled with an increasing average income by 50% per capita globally. In Europe the income doubled that time.

Between 1820 and 2000 the population in Europe sextoples with an increasing income by factor 9. In difference to the previous periods the average between the continents become more and more differential.

Today we have high distinctions between the income and infrastructure between the continents. Africa is the poorest continent with very small infrastructure. Many african nations don‘t have any railroad. The average density of the roadsystem in Africa is 6,84km per 100km². 80% of afrikan ships are older than 15 years. There is no realtime stock exchange in Africa. There are countries which have no stock exchange at all, other deliver the stock prices one time a week.

The gloabal average income between 2011 and 2014 develops as follows:

Undeveloped Countries Emerging countries Developed Countries
In Togo

  • 580 $ (2014)
  • 530 $ (2013)
  • 500 $ (2012)
  • 560 $ (2011)
In China:

  • 7.380 $ (2014)
  • 6.560 $ (2013)
  • 5.740 $ (2012)
  • 4.930 $ (2011)
In Australien:

  • 64.680 $ (2014)
  • 65.520 $ (2013)
  • 59.570 $ (2012)
  • 46.200 $ (2010)
In Tschad:

  • 1.010 $ (2014)
  • 1.020 $ (2013)
  • 740 $ (2012)
  • 690 $ (2011)
In Brasil

  • 11.760 $ (2014)
  • 11.690 $ (2013)
  • 11.630 $ (2012)
  • 10.720 $ (2011)
In United States of America:

  • 55.200 $ (2014)
  • 53.670 $ (2013)
  • 50.120 $ (2012)
  • 48.450 $ (2011)
In Nigeria:

  • 2.950 $ (2014)
  • 2.760 $ (2013)
  • 1.430 $ (2012)
  • 1.200 $ (2011)
In India:

  • 1.610 $ (2014)
  • 1.570 $ (2013)
  • 1.530 $ (2012)
  • 1.410 $ (2011)
In Great Britain and North Ireland:

  • 42.690 $ (2014)
  • 39.110 $ (2013)
  • 38.250 $ (2012)
  • 37.780 $ (2011)
In Südafrika:

  • 6.800 $ (2014)
  • 7.190 $ (2013)
  • 7.610 $ (2012)
  • 6.960 $ (2011)
In Marokko

  • 3.020 $ (2014)
  • 3.030 $ (2013)
  • 2.940 $ (2012)
  • 2.970 $ (2011)
In Germany:

  • 47.640 $ (2014)
  • 46.100 $ (2013)
  • 44.010 $ (2012)
  • 43.980 $ (2011)

Don‘t forget that the IWF marked China and India as the first and second strongest economy globally by 2050, USA ranked at third place. Asia is the continent with the fastest growing economies world wide.

At 1000 AD the economic unequality is 100% between the continents, in 1820 it is 80% between the continents and 20% locally within the continents, today it is only 40% between the continents and 60% locally within the continents. So the economic distinctions between the continents decreases with the time. At the same time the inequalities arise more and more within the continents between the nations of a continent and at least between the people within a country. Trigger of this development is an approximation of the regimes and the forms of economy also the approximation of the knowledge that is available for the economy and education of the people.

Another trigger is the Smartphone. No other device has such a fast distribution around the world like the smart phone. Not only in the developed nations the smart phone is an exigency but also in any other society like rural countries. Even indios in the bush have a smart phone, independently if they have other devices like washers, television or refrigerators. But the smart phone makes for them the world available and with this new experience the education approximates. The smart phone is a device which makes people more equal and increases knowledge in the poor countries. The frames the internet and the smart phones delivers to the users is made by the companies of the rich and developed countries. So with the smart phones the values and doctrines of the developed countries will circularise into the emerging and the undeveloped countries creating demand in the mind of the people and forcing economic development and changing in politics.

So the economic upcoming of China and India will converge the asian, american and european cultures. The smart phone will make the different cultures and values available for anyone.

The western countries, which outsourced the production lines for trimming the costs of production to China in the 1990‘s, made this economic boom of China possible. UN data shows that India has 1,354 mio people and the population of China measures 1,415mio people. That is summarised 2,769 bio people means 36,28% of the global population. This is an enormously potential for the economy specially because wide parts of the population in China and India have a big demand for goods. If the western nations want to participate on this demand they have to think about, how to deal with the cultural differences, to integrate the systems. It makes no sense to separate for economic, politics or job reasons. The people of China and India will demand to participate on the technical possibilities the industrialisation will allow them. And this will be a very big market.

Dollar increasing. Indizes stagnant. How is developing gold?

China and India gold purchases are stabilising the gold and silver price, even though the US dollar strenghtened. Gold usually is traded in US $. So, normally, if the US $ strengthened the gold and silver prices decrease. The last years the primary gold production yearly is stable by 3000 t. China and India together purchase 2000 t of that primary gold production. The rest, 1000 t, including the recycled gold is splitted by the rest of the world. If India and China stop that gold price could sharply decrease.

The gold stocks of the EU-States and on commodity exchanges are falling. Also the ETF’s are selling gold. This shows the activity of the swiss gold refineries. ETF’s have 12,5kg gold bars. China and India are buying 1kg bars, China with 9999 and India with 9995 quality of purity. Since 2013 the swiss gold refineries producing 1 kg bars of the 12,5 kg bars, which are normally used by the ETF’s. The swiss export statistics show that these 1 kg gold bars are exported with increasing value to China and slowly decrescent to Hongkong. Chinese officials said in the past, that China wants to secure its currency with real values like gold. China also accumulates the gold which it produces itself. China is the biggest primary gold producer. Chinas reserve is probably much bigger than the 1000t it has pronounced years ago.

If the FED will start to increase the rate the gold and silver price will increase quickly. The FED announced several times that it will increase the rates, if the job market is good and the economy start to grow sustainable.

The Indians and the Chinese, the world’s largest buyers of gold, have seen the value of their gold investments increase by approximately 200% over the last decade measured the worth in their domestic currencies.. Due to a collapse in their national currencies, South East Asians and Koreans have also seen the value of owning gold.

So the reserves of gold and silver which China and India buy now will be increasing it’s worth or will help to keep the yuan stable if the currency slumps.

And the finance system in China challenges the government. The local governments, the real estate sector and the industrie are highly indebted while the economy slows and the real estate sector slumps. The Chinese governments think about quantitative easing to give the banking system and the local governments enough liquidity to pay their debts and to have liquidity for operating and innovative businesses. China also plans to liberate its financing system to make it more flexible.

And China is not the only country, which is highly indebted. South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia and Hungary are also countries where the debts are critical high.