Schlagwort-Archive: India

US Iran Sanctions Could Lead to Inflation Jump

Iran could see inflation jump to the highest level since 1980, according to the International Monetary Fund. The Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions. Target is also the financial sector. The US president Donald Trump, on 09th of May 2019, announces also to sanction the mining sector.

China and India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports  climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle East.

China’s crude imports  climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

the Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions coupled with a weakening currency

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MoU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

iddle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Ir

China an d India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

anian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insur

the Islamic Republic faces tighter U.S. oil sanctions coupled with a weakening currency

ance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the l

China an d India are the biggest trading partners of Iran.

China’s crude imports climbed to a record of 43.73 million tons of crude in April, or 10.68 million barrels a day, according to Bloomberg calculations based on data from General Administration of Customs in Beijing. That’s the most since 2010. China was a waiver. It stock up on Iranian oil before exemptions from U.S. sanctions expired on May 2 offset the effect of maintenance shutdowns by local refiners. The Chinese refineries boosted Iranian oil imports before their status changed on 2th of May, 2019, when sanctions became operative.

India is not able to abstain from Iran oil. After India received the sanctions waiver status, only state-run Indian Oil Corp, Bharat Petroleum Corp, Hindustan Petroleum and Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals have been buying Iranian oil lower than 500.000 bpd. that Iran was hoping to sell to its second-biggest oil client after China. Indian refiners raised purchases from Iran in April-October 2018, drawn to almost free shipping and extended credit offered by Tehran to boost sales and cut the Iran oil imports by 40% at about 313,400 bpd.

It normally takes 22 days for Iranian cargoes to arrive in China, so shipments are likely to drop significantly for May arrivals as observed exports from the Islamic Republic fell 67 percent in April from March.

But there is much more than oil affected by the sanctions. Iran has a viral car industrie producing about 1.1 to 1.5 mio cars yearly. The car industrie and automotive makes 10% of Iran GDP. Iran Khodro is the largest car manufacturer in the Middle-East. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents. The raw materials and parts supply must be secured if Iran want to hold it‘s status in Arabia and serve the demand of cars and parts. The maintaining of the cars must be guaranteed.

An oil pipeline in the Iranian province of Khuzestan exploded yesterday Iran’s state news agency IRNA reported. The cause of the blast was accidental, according to media reports. The existing pipelines have to be maintained or explosions could become more frequently. It was the second blast in the last two months.

As Iran Business News in September 2018 reported has an Iranian petrochemical company achieved the technical know-how to make special catalysts used for gasoline production, making Iran the world’s second producer of such advanced component and helping it earn as much as $60 billion a year in export revenue. Iran is now the second country in the world, after the US, that makes such high-tech catalysts, he added, noting that 9 Iranian refineries and 11 petrochemical plants have begun to use the homegrown catalysts.The new technology helps Iran save around $1 billion each year, reduce the sale of crude oil, and reap $60 billion in profit per annum through exports, Sobhani added. He said Iran’s daily production of Euro 4 and Euro-5-compliant gasoline using domestically-made catalysts stands at 96 million liters, saying such achievement has made the country invulnerable to gasoline-related sanctions.

Catalysts are major components of gasoline isomerization process during which low-octane oil fractions are turned into high-octane commercial gasoline. Iran is in direct competition to USA in a multi billion $ market with this product.

And thats not all. The Iranian industries includes energy and petrochemicals, mining, automakers and -parts, energy and petrochemicals, banking and financial services, steel, communications, insurance, utilities and infrastructure, transportation, beverage and food, construction and building materials, retailers, pharmatceutical, industrial equipment and machinery, computers and electronics, paper and wood, shipbuilding, aerospace and defense, Internet Service Provider and telecommunication, apparel, footwear and textiles, hospitality, IT sector, ćonsumer goods, Toruism, railway and road maintaining. And of course it has its own Airline, Media and Entertainment.

If all this sectors should function the supply chain and the maintaining has to be secured. Iran will do anything to escape isolation. India has high interest to elaborate it‘s economic and political relations to Iran as India invests 6% of it‘s aid to Iran to built the harbour in Chabahar. India wants to secure with the harbour in Chabahar it‘s trade with Afghanistan without transporting goods through Pakistan. Chabahar will be also the gate to Africa. Also China is involved in infrastructure projects in Iran in line with it‘s road and belt initiative and Iran has colaborations with different international conglomerates. So Iran’s National Petrochemical Company (NPC) and the China Petroleum and Chemical Industry Federation (CPCIF) signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for construction of a petrochemical park in Iran by Chinese companies. Also European companies are involved in planning and construction new plants.

And what‘s about the money for licenses?

Iranian companies like PRTC seeks innovation and development by establishing new ties with international companies. In 2017 PRTC had inked 8 memoranda of understanding (MoUs) and deals with foreign partners including chemical giants like BASF, Axens and IFP for cooperation on various petrochemical and projects. The MOU with Axens and IFP concern licensing new technologies, production of items based on the latest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by themself. It can win an ally.

atest technologies like catalysts, absorbents and additives, cooperation in designing processes, construction of catalysts and jointly developing and marketing technical savvy in petrochemical industry.

Iran is an upcoming nation. World economic forum forecast ranking Iran on 17th with a GDP of 3.900 trio $ annually by 2050.

https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/12/these-will-be-the-most-powerful-economies-in-the-world-by-2050

The US administration has announced a series of new sanctions against Iran, aimed at driving its oil exports down to zero. But Iran is no less developed country and much more than oil. And USA are sanctionising not only the oil sector.

With the new US threat and the aggression of Israel Iran could feel to be forced to take action against it‘s enemies. Iran announce to start enrichment of uran and rocket tests again. This would make Iran able to build an atomic bomb. It also warns that it would attack Israel immeditaly if Israel take action against an ally of Iran or Iran itself. This could flare up civil war in Yemen. Houthis could also attack Saudi Arabia with rockets. Saudi Arabia is an ally of the USA.

The European nations, India and China have to decide if they support an Iran with mid range rockets and atomic bombs, rockets which can reach their mainland. China has to fight an US threat by itself. It can win an ally.

 

Income And Equality In Societies

At 1000 AD there were different, separated economic systems and societies on the continents of the world. Scientific data shows, that the average wealth of this different systems was equal, but inside the systems the wealth was highly different. Today, we would say that the average income per capita in all societies globally was between 500 US$ and 600 US$.

Between 1000 and 1820 the population of the world quadrupled with an increasing average income by 50% per capita globally. In Europe the income doubled that time.

Between 1820 and 2000 the population in Europe sextoples with an increasing income by factor 9. In difference to the previous periods the average between the continents become more and more differential.

Today we have high distinctions between the income and infrastructure between the continents. Africa is the poorest continent with very small infrastructure. Many african nations don‘t have any railroad. The average density of the roadsystem in Africa is 6,84km per 100km². 80% of afrikan ships are older than 15 years. There is no realtime stock exchange in Africa. There are countries which have no stock exchange at all, other deliver the stock prices one time a week.

The gloabal average income between 2011 and 2014 develops as follows:

Undeveloped Countries Emerging countries Developed Countries
In Togo

  • 580 $ (2014)
  • 530 $ (2013)
  • 500 $ (2012)
  • 560 $ (2011)
In China:

  • 7.380 $ (2014)
  • 6.560 $ (2013)
  • 5.740 $ (2012)
  • 4.930 $ (2011)
In Australien:

  • 64.680 $ (2014)
  • 65.520 $ (2013)
  • 59.570 $ (2012)
  • 46.200 $ (2010)
In Tschad:

  • 1.010 $ (2014)
  • 1.020 $ (2013)
  • 740 $ (2012)
  • 690 $ (2011)
In Brasil

  • 11.760 $ (2014)
  • 11.690 $ (2013)
  • 11.630 $ (2012)
  • 10.720 $ (2011)
In United States of America:

  • 55.200 $ (2014)
  • 53.670 $ (2013)
  • 50.120 $ (2012)
  • 48.450 $ (2011)
In Nigeria:

  • 2.950 $ (2014)
  • 2.760 $ (2013)
  • 1.430 $ (2012)
  • 1.200 $ (2011)
In India:

  • 1.610 $ (2014)
  • 1.570 $ (2013)
  • 1.530 $ (2012)
  • 1.410 $ (2011)
In Great Britain and North Ireland:

  • 42.690 $ (2014)
  • 39.110 $ (2013)
  • 38.250 $ (2012)
  • 37.780 $ (2011)
In Südafrika:

  • 6.800 $ (2014)
  • 7.190 $ (2013)
  • 7.610 $ (2012)
  • 6.960 $ (2011)
In Marokko

  • 3.020 $ (2014)
  • 3.030 $ (2013)
  • 2.940 $ (2012)
  • 2.970 $ (2011)
In Germany:

  • 47.640 $ (2014)
  • 46.100 $ (2013)
  • 44.010 $ (2012)
  • 43.980 $ (2011)

Don‘t forget that the IWF marked China and India as the first and second strongest economy globally by 2050, USA ranked at third place. Asia is the continent with the fastest growing economies world wide.

At 1000 AD the economic unequality is 100% between the continents, in 1820 it is 80% between the continents and 20% locally within the continents, today it is only 40% between the continents and 60% locally within the continents. So the economic distinctions between the continents decreases with the time. At the same time the inequalities arise more and more within the continents between the nations of a continent and at least between the people within a country. Trigger of this development is an approximation of the regimes and the forms of economy also the approximation of the knowledge that is available for the economy and education of the people.

Another trigger is the Smartphone. No other device has such a fast distribution around the world like the smart phone. Not only in the developed nations the smart phone is an exigency but also in any other society like rural countries. Even indios in the bush have a smart phone, independently if they have other devices like washers, television or refrigerators. But the smart phone makes for them the world available and with this new experience the education approximates. The smart phone is a device which makes people more equal and increases knowledge in the poor countries. The frames the internet and the smart phones delivers to the users is made by the companies of the rich and developed countries. So with the smart phones the values and doctrines of the developed countries will circularise into the emerging and the undeveloped countries creating demand in the mind of the people and forcing economic development and changing in politics.

So the economic upcoming of China and India will converge the asian, american and european cultures. The smart phone will make the different cultures and values available for anyone.

The western countries, which outsourced the production lines for trimming the costs of production to China in the 1990‘s, made this economic boom of China possible. UN data shows that India has 1,354 mio people and the population of China measures 1,415mio people. That is summarised 2,769 bio people means 36,28% of the global population. This is an enormously potential for the economy specially because wide parts of the population in China and India have a big demand for goods. If the western nations want to participate on this demand they have to think about, how to deal with the cultural differences, to integrate the systems. It makes no sense to separate for economic, politics or job reasons. The people of China and India will demand to participate on the technical possibilities the industrialisation will allow them. And this will be a very big market.

Dollar increasing. Indizes stagnant. How is developing gold?

China and India gold purchases are stabilising the gold and silver price, even though the US dollar strenghtened. Gold usually is traded in US $. So, normally, if the US $ strengthened the gold and silver prices decrease. The last years the primary gold production yearly is stable by 3000 t. China and India together purchase 2000 t of that primary gold production. The rest, 1000 t, including the recycled gold is splitted by the rest of the world. If India and China stop that gold price could sharply decrease.

The gold stocks of the EU-States and on commodity exchanges are falling. Also the ETF’s are selling gold. This shows the activity of the swiss gold refineries. ETF’s have 12,5kg gold bars. China and India are buying 1kg bars, China with 9999 and India with 9995 quality of purity. Since 2013 the swiss gold refineries producing 1 kg bars of the 12,5 kg bars, which are normally used by the ETF’s. The swiss export statistics show that these 1 kg gold bars are exported with increasing value to China and slowly decrescent to Hongkong. Chinese officials said in the past, that China wants to secure its currency with real values like gold. China also accumulates the gold which it produces itself. China is the biggest primary gold producer. Chinas reserve is probably much bigger than the 1000t it has pronounced years ago.

If the FED will start to increase the rate the gold and silver price will increase quickly. The FED announced several times that it will increase the rates, if the job market is good and the economy start to grow sustainable.

The Indians and the Chinese, the world’s largest buyers of gold, have seen the value of their gold investments increase by approximately 200% over the last decade measured the worth in their domestic currencies.. Due to a collapse in their national currencies, South East Asians and Koreans have also seen the value of owning gold.

So the reserves of gold and silver which China and India buy now will be increasing it’s worth or will help to keep the yuan stable if the currency slumps.

And the finance system in China challenges the government. The local governments, the real estate sector and the industrie are highly indebted while the economy slows and the real estate sector slumps. The Chinese governments think about quantitative easing to give the banking system and the local governments enough liquidity to pay their debts and to have liquidity for operating and innovative businesses. China also plans to liberate its financing system to make it more flexible.

And China is not the only country, which is highly indebted. South Korea, Thailand, Malaysia and Hungary are also countries where the debts are critical high.